Creato da Hasan Koktas
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Renewable Energy in Turkey - Hasan Koktas -
Although Turkey is very rich in renewables potential, few of this potential has been utilized so far. The green opportunities has become one of the hottest topics in Turkey since renewables are considered not only as a way of mitigating import dependency in energy resources but also as a part of finding solutions to environmental problems such as global warming.
The share of renewables in TPES declined to 9.4% as of 2009 from 17% in mid-1990s and realized as 9.6% as of the end of 2011 (MENR, 2012). Two of the most important reasons explaining this reduction is the sharp decline in the traditional usage of biomass and the natural gas' increasing use in power generation. Biomass and hydropower are the two major types of renewable sources commonly used in Turkey in addition to the rarer uses of other types such as geothermal, wind and solar.
In parallel to the decrease in the share of renewables in TPES, its share in electricity production dropped to 26.3% in 2010 from its 40% level. Despite the increase in the volume of electricity produced by wind, the share of renewables in power generation has been 25.2% in 2011.
Turkey was, among 28 members of IEA, tenth in terms of share of renewables in TPES (9.5%) as of 2008 and 12th in terms of share of renewables in power generation as of 2009. Thanks to the increase in the use of hydro and wind power in 2010, the share of renewables in total electricity production went up by more than 7 points in 2010 and dropped by around 1 percent in 2011.
Corresponding to 57.6 TWh power generation, this amount is composed of 90.5% hydropower and 8.3% wind power, remainder being almost completely BIOGAS and geothermal (EMRA, 2012). The development of power generation based on hydro resources and wind power capacity is shown in the blow graphs.
Turkish policymakers have adopted the objective to increase the share of renewables, which had declined due to the sharp decrease in the usage of traditional biomass and replacement of hydropower in electricity generation by other forms of power generation, by increasingly utilizing the so called new-generation renewable sources such as wind, geothermal and solar while totally exhausting the country's hydro potential at the same time.
The EU has committed itself to increase the share of renewables in total primary energy and in transportation to 20% and 10% respectively by 2020. To this end, 62% of the additions to the overall Installed capacity within the 27 members of the Union was renewables-based in 2009, 60% of this total being wind power. In other words, 38% of capacity additions was wind-based in EU in 2009 making wind power the fuel of choice, for a second consecutive year, in the Union (EC, 2010). The European Commission estimates that in order to meet the aforementioned targets by 2020, it would be necessary to increase the share of renewables in power generation to 35 to 40% (EC, 2010).
Similarly, Turkey has also adopted concrete targets to increase the share of renewables as well as introduced progressive legislation to set up a favorable legal and regulatory framework that would eventually pave the way for an increased utilization of renewables. In general, Electricity Market and Security of Supply Strategy Paper (2009) stipulates that the share of renewables in power generation will reach at least 30% by 2023. Furthermore, it is also set forth within the same document that by 2023 technologi¬cally and economically feasible hydro potential will be totally exhausted (approximately 140 TWh); the wind power capacity will reach at 20,000 MW; 600 MW geothermal potential will come online; and the necessary steps will be taken to promote electricity generation based on solar energy. Thanks to these targets and consequent initiatives, the wind power capacity exceeded 1,793 MW as of March 2012 from an almost zero level in 2002, and 2.140 MW capacity based on renewables was added to country's installed capacity during the past two years (TEIAS, 2012).
Having in mind that the government incentives are an indispensable part of any renewable energy scheme for the time being, Turkish Parliament passed the Law 5346 to incentivize the usage of renewable sources in power generation. Based on this legislation, the incentives for the use of renewables in power generation include Feed-in-Tariffs, purchase guarantees connection priorities, lower license fees, license exemptions in exceptional circumstances and various practical conveniences in project preparation and land acquisition. Efforts are ongoing to further enhance the investment framework in renewables sector and to further increase the share of renewables in compliance with the targets set by the Strategy Paper. In fact, an amendment to Law No 5346 has already been made at the end of 2010 which includes a differentiated and adequate level of Feed-in-Tariff scheme for different types that eventually provide the investors with fair and timely returns on their investment.